All organizations rely on survey research data in formulating and implementing strategies. That’s why each survey serves has to be well-drafted and specifically goal-oriented. Surveys are conducted to collect extensive information about a particular topic. Almost all surveys contain both qualitative and quantitative survey questions.
A qualitative survey’s question pool comprises “Why” and “How” questions. The “What” and “Who” questions are the mainstays of quantitative surveys.
Quantitative Survey Questions: Definition
The word “Quantitative” means measurable aspects of a market— gauged with the help of survey mechanisms. Answers to quantitative questions are often in the form of numbers, ratings, range selection, and so on.
These responses can be analyzed by statistical tools (SWOT Analysers) to study the survey responses further. Since the desired answers are numerical, quantitative survey questions are objective in nature. Thus,
quantitative data is concerned with measuring the quantity of a parameter and not only the quality.
Quantitative Survey Questions are used to predict future trends in consumer behaviour. The results of quantitative research can also be used to identify patterns and trends about a particular topic.
Data collected through quantitative survey questions can be generalized to a large population. All these aspects make quantitative survey questions a great tool for making future predictions.
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Categories Quantitative Survey Questions + Examples
Answers to quantitative survey questions should be concise and accurate. It can be classified into three types.
Descriptive Survey Questions
- Descriptive Survey Questions are designed to quantify a variable. The salary of a software engineer is variable across organizations and cities. Questions like, “How much does a software engineer make in London?” quantify a variable: salary.
- Additionally, multiple variables can be collected with these questions. Such as how long one does exercise and how many days a week are two variables. A descriptive survey question that covers these two would be, “How often do you exercise in a week, and for how long.”
- These questions start with “What percentage?”, “How much” “How often?”, “What proportion?” etc.
Examples of Descriptive Survey Questions
- What is the most preferred dinner time among Japanese Americans?
- Variable: Dinner Time
- Target Group: Japanese Americans
- By what age do most Indians prefer to get married?
- Variable: Marriage Age
- Target Group: Indians
- What percentage of Billionaires invest their money in tax havens outside the UK?
- Variable: Number of Billionaires moving out of the UK to save tax
- Target Group: Billionaires living in the UK
A variable is quantified in all the above examples but the parameters of quantification change.
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Comparative Survey Questions
- Using comparative survey questions, we can compare two or more groups on different variables. A typical comparative survey question begins with, “What’s the difference between” or “What is a difference in” followed by the variable under study and group names.
- In comparative surveys, dependable variables establish a relation between two or more groups.
Examples of Comparative Survey Questions
- What is the difference in jewellery choices between young and older women?
- Dependable Variable: Jewelry Choices
- Comparison groups: Young and old women
- What is the difference in salaries between national and international football players?
- Dependable Variable: Football player salaries
- Comparison Groups: National and International football players
- What is the difference in life expectancy between African and European Children?
- Dependable Variable: Life Expectancy
- Comparison Groups: African and European Children
The examples above establish gender, profession, and ethnicity as independent variables. Dependent variables determine how complex a comparative survey would be.
Relationship Survey Questions
Relationship Survey Questions aim to understand relationships, trends, and associations between two or more variables. Variables are selected based on two or more groups’ demographics or other characteristics.
After “What is the relationship between/among” followed by the group name, independent variable, and dependent variable, these questions begin.
Examples of Relationship Survey Questions
- What is the relationship between ethnicity and food choices in Canada?
- Dependent Variable: Food Choices
- Independent variable: Ethnicity
- Relationship Group: Canadians
- What is the relationship between gender and Job interview selection rates in India?
- Dependent Variable: Job interview selection rate
- Independent variable: Gender
- Relationship Group: Indians
- What is the relationship between age and dating preferences in Germany?
- Dependent Variable: Dating preferences
- Independent variable: Age
- Relationship Group: Germans
How to Design Quantitative Survey Questions?
The 4 steps to designing effective Quantitative Survey Questions are as follows
1. Finalize Quantitative Survey Question Type
A researcher must finalize the survey question type to help respondents get a clear idea about the survey. Chosen question type should reflect the objective of the survey.
Each question type is used to gather a specific type of data. Using an improper question type will generate ineffective questions and survey results.
2. Recognize Target groups and independent and dependent variables
Three important elements in a question are the variables, groups, and their order. Once the objective of a survey and question type is clear, we should move to recognize these crucial elements.
A change in the independent variables can be observed by manipulating the independent variables. Identifying which variables can serve what purpose will help in designing the right questions.
3. Decide on the Structure
It is not enough to identify variables and target groups. Deciding how these variables and target groups appear in a question is equally important.
This is why the third element, order, becomes crucial at this step. A quantitative survey question should be easy to understand for the respondents. Deciding a proper structure for questions helps solve this problem.
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4. Review the Questions
A researcher must ensure that taking their survey is as smooth an experience as possible for the respondents. Ensure your questions flow and are readable, structured, ordered, and clear. When drafting quantitative survey questions, ensure they are concise, well-structured, and clearly expressed.
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